Thai Thai-Karen and Karen Women's Insecurity in Forest Livelihoods ab 58.99 € als Taschenbuch: A Comparative Analysis from Kaeng Krachan Complex Thailand. Aus dem Bereich: Bücher, Ratgeber, Lebenshilfe,
Over the last years, the interest in agriculture has grown again among international organizations and within governmental agencies. Along with the new investments in agriculture, the use of information and communication technologies has become more popular in agricultural development and extension. Smartphones, combining user-friendly phone features with mobile internet, are increasingly influencing our lives and it is expected that the next wave of smartphone users will come from remote rural areas. Therefore smartphones and their applications are of high interest for the agricultural sector. So far there have been several studies in various countries trying to analyze the impact of mobile devices on agricultural development. However, no overall conclusive evidence has been presented yet. As a middle-income country, Thailand has a growing number of smartphone users, also within the agricultural community. Therefore, this study analyzes the impact of the smartphone application called "Farmer Info" on the livelihoods of Thai farmers and their agricultural practices in the area of Chiang Rai province.
Although Thailand is currently the leading tuna fish exporter in the world, this research asks whether the Thai tuna industry really sustainable. Almost all the raw tuna is imported prior to processing for re-export, and tuna stocks are known to be over-fished. This research examines the economic, environmental, and social sustainability aspects of the Thai tuna industry. There are three major parts - forecasting future tuna demand, internal and international competitiveness analysis, and sustainable livelihoods of processing workers analysis. The Thai tuna industry will not probably be environmentally, economically, and socially sustainable without substantial adjustment. The industry faces many severe problems in the near future as reflected in lower demand forecasts, lack of raw material, unprofitable fishing operations, emerging shortages of motivated, well-paid, skilled labour, and binding rules of origin and tariff restrictions. As this analysis clearly demonstrates, maintaining both tuna fishing and the processing industry in Thailand will be difficult.
This study examines the gender and ethnic dimensions of insecurity among Thai, Thai-Karen and Karen women in the forest livelihoods. Though, women are the main users of the forest resources for subsistence and commercial purposes, gender norms constrain them in participating in decision making process at the community forest management. As a result, forest management activities are dominated by men. However, Thai women are more secure as members of dominant ethnic group. They are more entrenched in commercial activities due to their advantageous social and legal status and better access to market. But Thai-Karen and Karen women are marginalized because of their ethnicity and substandard social status as a minority group. Dependency on Thais, limited legal status and lack of options for multiple livelihoods are the factors of insecurity for Karen and Thai-Karen in forest livelihood. Between Karen and Thai-Karen, the latter enjoys a better living condition due to cultural assimilation with Thai community. This social capital provides Thai-Karen women with multiple livelihood options. Inaccessibility to all these benefits makes Karen women highly insecure in the society.
In the present study fish marketing systems in different markets of Mymensingh town, market price, consumers perceptions and fish sellers livelihoods were studied for a period of six months from July to December 2007. Data were collected through questionnaire interviews and focus group discussions. The market chain from producers to consumers passes through a number of intermediaries. Based on a sample of 60 retailers from the three different markets, the daily supply of fish were estimated as 5-6, 2-3 and 1-2 tonnes respectively. Most of the fishes (85%) have been transported from the rural areas of the district and the remaining part from external sources (15%). It is estimated that 48% of fish supplied in the markets were carps, 8% hilsa, 13% catfish, 7% small indigenous fish, 4.33% Thai koi, 3.66% prawns and shrimps, 6% tilapia, and 10% others including marine fish. The price of fish depends on market structure, species quality, size and weight. It was found that the price per kilogram of carp increases with size symmetrically. The retailers in the three markets made a considerable amount of profit. It was found that 73.33% of the retailers have improved their livelihood status
Paper, Pottery and Prosperity focuses on the role of handicraft production in rural development in Northern Thailand, exploring how handicrafts evolve over time in the context of a modernising economy. This links with on-going debates on community-based development theory, including those related to rural industrialisation, rural-urban relations and biases, indigenous knowledge, rural poverty and livelihoods. The research seeks to return to an issue which was a popular area of investigation in the 1970s, namely the role of small-scale industries in rural development. Rural spaces have always contained an element of non-farm activities, often classified as handicraft production . To date, there is no book which takes such an approach to building an understanding of Thai handicrafts and rural development. The book provides an alternative and different insight into a range of rural development debates in Thailand
The goal of this study was to compare production systems and potential for further developmentof beef buffalo and beef cattle farms in northeastern Thailand aiming at an improvement ofproduction and as a consequence of farmers’ livelihoods. The specific objectives were:1. to better understand and re-examine characteristics of the livestock farms and reasons forkeeping livestock,2. to assess socio-economic and livelihood benefits of the livestock for the farmers,3. to investigate the livestock husbandry including farm management, feeding and breedingpractices,4. to explore farmers’ perceptions of favourable traits of buffaloes and cattle and reasons forthe decline of the buffalo population,5. to investigate social and environmental impacts as well as problems and needs of thelivestock farming according to the farmers’ point of view.The following hypotheses were tested to achieve the objectives of the study:1. Characteristics of livestock farming and reasons for keeping livestock differ between beefbuffalo and beef cattle farms and between herd sizes.2. Differences between beef buffalo and beef cattle farms and between herd sizes have aneffect on socio-economics and livelihoods of the farmers.3. There are differences in farm management, feeding management and breeding practicesbetween beef buffalo and beef cattle farms and between herd sizes.4. Beef buffalo farms have a lower level of farm inputs and a higher potential for improvingthe production.5. Community and environmental conflicts are caused by livestock farming depending onanimal species and herd size.This study was conducted in the province of the Nakhon Ratchasima, located in the lower part ofnortheastern Thailand (as shown in Figure 3.1, in Chapter 3). The multi-state sampling methodwas used to choose the farms based on the livestock production census in 2006 obtained from theNakhonratchasima Provincial Livestock Office, Department of Livestock Development. Based onthis data, 121 beef buffalo and beef cattle farms, respectively, were selected randomly. BetweenOctober 2007 and May 2008, a single-visit, multiple-subject survey was carried out using faceto-face interviews. The recall, observation and measurement method was used to complete a pretested,semi-structured questionnaire. The opinions and views of the farmers were gathered byopen-ended questions. Questionnaires included farm characteristics, importance of livestock,socio-economic benefits of the animals, feed resources, feeding management, herd structures andbreeding practices, favourable traits of buffalo and cattle, reasons for the decline of the buffalopopulation as well as constraints and needs for the development of livestock farming. All datawere statistically analyzed to describe the livestock farming systems and to compare beef buffaloand beef cattle farms and sizes of herds.Characteristics of beef buffalo and beef cattle farming as well as the roles and the socio-economicbenefits of the livestock to the keepers are presented in Chapter 4. Most of the farms wereintegrated crop-livestock systems with small farm size (7.9 ha), whereof less than half of the areawas used for livestock. Farm activities were mainly done by family members while employeeswere only found on large farms. The most important reason for keeping animals was incomegeneration (80 % of all responses). This could be classified into accumulation of wealth orsavings (22 %), covering expected (19 %) and unexpected (19 %) expenses, and regular (11 %)and additional (9 %) sources of cash income. Besides this, improvement of the social status wasmentioned (18 %). Only 2 % of the farmers kept the animals for draught power, inherited asset,manure source and conservation aspect. Most of planned and unplanned expenses of householdsduring the last 5 years were covered by selling livestock (58 %) and other agricultural products(19 %). The more animals the farmers kept the better the dwelling conditions, the larger thenumber of household assets and the more access to commercial health insurances the farmershad. The results confirm the important roles of buffaloes and cattle in the livelihood strategies ofrural households.Chapter 5 presents feed resources for beef buffaloes and beef cattle throughout the year andfeeding management of the livestock farms. Most of the livestock farms (94 %) practiced aherding system while tethering was used only by smallholders. The animals were kept on smallpasture areas (3.1 ha) with very low pasture allowance (0.1 ha TLU-1, TLU = Tropical LivestockUnits). During rainy season feed was obtained mostly from communal grasslands while harvestedcrop fields, shared by the community, became the most important source of feed during dryseason. Therefore, major limitations of feed supply were low quantity and quality because oflimited resources, variation of cropping patterns and seasonal fluctuations. Due to the lack oflands, low investment in pasture cultivation and seasonal limitations, farmers were not able tooffer green forages to their animals throughout the year. Crop residues were used to fulfilanimals’ requirements during feed shortage or throughout the year. Because of high cost and lowavailability, farmers rarely practiced feed supplementation even though breeding animals weregiven the highest priority for supplementation. An extensive feeding system is mainly practicedon resource-poor farms, especially buffalo farms. The risk of feed deficiency is increasing ifmore animals are kept.Herd structures, breed compositions and breeding systems of beef buffalo and beef cattle farmsare reported in Chapter 6. The herd size in this study area was on average 39 buffaloes and 42cattle per farm with a high variation. The size of herd had slightly increased over the previousyears. Animals born within the herd were important sources of replacing buffaloes, indicating ahigh risk of inbreeding, while beef cattle farms imported animals from off-farm resources.Artificial insemination (AI) was not practiced for buffaloes while beef cattle farms adopted bothnatural and AI services. Damage of female’s reproductive tract (38 % of responses) was stated asthe most important problem of AI. Lack of semen was stated by buffalo farmers as a limitation ofAI. Traits related to beef production were stated as high priority for buffalo selection, while cattlefarmers preferred an attractive appearance. Thai swamp buffaloes, which are superior in beefproduction traits, comprised up to 91 % of the buffalo herd. On the contrary, crossbreds of nativecattle and Brahman, and of native, Brahman and Indo-Brazilian cattle (88 % of the herd), havinga more attractive appearance, predominated over the pure Thai native cattle breed (5 % of theherd). Native breeding bulls were not included in breeding programmes of cattle, which mayresult in the loss of genetic resources of local cattle in this area.In Chapter 7, competitiveness of beef buffaloes and beef cattle, influences of animal farming onlocal community and environment, constraints and needs stated by the farmers, and reasons forthe decline of buffalo farming are described. Buffaloes impressed the farmers by their higheradaptation and productivity under extensive management as well as their superior beefproduction potential, fertility and longevity. However, the lack of water resources for wallowingwas addressed as the most important reason for the decrease of buffalo farming (63 % offarmers). Due to a possible cause of water contamination and community conflicts, buffaloessometimes were not allowed to enter public or private water resources. Deficiency of feed andwater from communal resources (61 % of farmers) and the need to access more of these resources(43 % of farmers), particularly by large-scale farmers, were mentioned as the main constraints oflivestock farming. Livestock services, marketing and prices also need to be improved by theauthorities when a market-oriented farming system is emerging. A high competitive use of thecommunal properties, particularly by large-scale farms, sometimes caused social conflicts andenvironmental harms. However, livestock was regarded to improve soils and the local ecosystem.Beef buffaloes and beef cattle can cope with the economic needs of the households as well asimprove farmers’ socio-economic status and livelihoods substantially. As market-orientedproduction systems are becoming more important than subsistent systems, livestock husbandry,government services and livestock marketing need to be developed in order to improve theproductivity of livestock farming and consequently farmers’ livelihoods. As regarding their highpotential for beef production, effective water management strategies should be deliberatelyconsidered to alleviate the drastic decline of the buffalo population and to promote beef buffalofarm enterprises. Furthermore, community and environmental antagonists related to livestockfarming need to be taken into account in the policies and promotions.
Thailand's Bhumibol Adulyadej, the only king ever born in the United States, came to the throne of his country in 1946 and is now the world's longest-serving monarch. 'The King Never Smiles,' the first independent biography of Thailand's monarch, tells the unexpected story of Bhumibol's life and sixty-year rule--how a Western-raised boy came to be seen by his people as a living Buddha, and how a king widely seen as beneficent and apolitical could in fact be so deeply political and autocratic. Paul Handley provides an extensively researched, factual account of the king's youth and personal development, ascent to the throne, skillful political maneuverings, and attempt to shape Thailand as a Buddhist kingdom. Handley takes full note of Bhumibol's achievements in art, in sports and jazz, and he credits the king's lifelong dedication to rural development and the livelihoods of his poorest subjects. But, looking beyond the widely accepted image of the king as egalitarian and virtuous, Handley portrays an anti-democratic monarch who, together with allies in big business and the corrupt Thai military, has protected a centuries-old, barely modified feudal dynasty. When at nineteen Bhumibol assumed the throne, the Thai monarchy had been stripped of power and prestige. Over the ensuing decades, Bhumibol became the paramount political actor in the kingdom, silencing critics while winning the hearts and minds of his people. The book details this process and depicts Thailand's unique constitutional monarch--his life, his thinking, and his ruling philosophy.
Paper, Pottery and Prosperity focuses on the role of handicraft production in rural development in Northern Thailand, exploring how handicrafts evolve over time in the context of a modernising economy. This links with on-going debates on community-based development theory, including those related to rural industrialisation, rural-urban relations and biases, indigenous knowledge, rural poverty and livelihoods. The research seeks to return to an issue which was a popular area of investigation in the 1970s, namely the role of small-scale industries in rural development. Rural spaces have always contained an element of non-farm activities, often classified as 'handicraft production'. To date, there is no book which takes such an approach to building an understanding of Thai handicrafts and rural development. The book provides an alternative and different insight into a range of rural development debates in Thailand